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Pharaoh Hatshepsut Basic Facts
- Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. She ruled ancient Egypt for over twenty years in the 14th century BC.
- She was born in approximately 1508 BC.
- She was the daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I and Ahmes who was his main wife.
- Her husband was Thutmose II who was the son of Thutmose I and Mutneferet who was a secondary wife of Thutmose I.
- The name Hatchepsut means "foremost of Noble Ladies".
- When her father died she initially served as queen of Egypt with her husband and half-brother Pharaoh Thutmose II.
- When her husband Thutmose II died Hatshepsut served as regent to her infant nephew Thutmose III. She eventually claimed the role of Pharaoh serving as co-ruler with Thutmose III. Although officially a co-ruler she was clearly the ruler of Egypt until her death.
- Exactly when she became Pharaoh is unknown but it is believed to be somewhere between 1512 BC and 1479 BC. Her reign ended with her death in 1458 BC. How she died is unknown.
- Although Women had many rights in ancient Egypt, including the right to own property, only a few ever ruled the ancient civilization. Only two or three women preceded Hatshepsut as Pharaoh and none of them ruled for as long as she did.
- After Hatshepsut's death and towards the end of his reign as Pharaoh Thutmose III attempted to wipe out all references to Hatshepsut. He destroyed monuments to her and had inscriptions about her removed. Why he did this is unclear. Some theories include that he resented her for some reason or perhaps he wanted to secure his son Amenhotep II's succession as leader of Egypt. In fact some historians believe it may have been Amenhotep II who carried out these actions.
Pharaoh Hatshepsut Accomplishments
- Hatshepsut's rule over Egypt began a long prosperous and peaceful era for this ancient civilization. Unlike most rulers of ancient Egypt she focused on economic prosperity as opposed to warfare and expansion.
- Under her reign ancient Egypt re-established trade with other regions of the world.
- Hatshepsut is responsible for the construction of hundreds of buildings and other structures throughout Egypt.
- There were so many statues built during her reign that most of the largest museums in the world have Egyptian statues built during that time period.
- She built her mortuary temple the Djeser-Djeseru (Holy of Holies) which still stands today and is one of the greatest buildings of this ancient civilization. It is located on the west bank of the Nile close to the Valley of the Kings. This temple is dedicated to the famous Egyptian sun god Amon-Ra.